Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive imaging technique for quantitative measurement of the mechanical properties of biologic tissue in vivo . The clinical interest in MRE has largely been driven by the direct relationship between tissue health and stiffness. As a result, MRE may provide significant clinical value for the non-invasive diagnosis of pathology and response to therapy by tracking tumor development and monitoring therapeutic response. MRE may also have considerable value in the development of treatment protocols in pre-clinical, rodent models of cancer. Because of cost and versatility, the mouse, in particular, is widely employed in oncologic studies. To resolve its small anatomic features, MRE experiments in mice must be performed with high driving frequencies (>600 Hz). However, high-frequency waves exhibit increased attenuation, reducing wave penetration depth and making it more difficult to impart motion deep into tissue with sufficient amplitude to overcome background noise. Also, biologic tissue is viscoelastic; hence, its response to load depends on the driving frequency. Recent MRE studies in mouse brain have been performed in high-field scanners (7 - 11.7T) at single driving frequencies of 1000 and 1200 Hz [2,3]. Here, we perform elastography in mouse brain tissue at 4.7T and report viscoelastic material properties over a range of driving frequencies (600 - 1800 Hz).
Multi degree of freedom (dof) mechanisms are widely required into micro or macro manipulation fields as well as in optronics functions. Commonly available mechanisms may be divided into two main categories. The first is industrial robots (serial or parallel). These offer large range of motion, in rotation and translation. Their resolution is usually limited in the sub-millimeter range. The second category achieves very high resolution motion (sub-nanometer) but is limited to a few decades of microns. A way to combine both long stroke and resolution is to use piezo motors into multi dof mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to present a combination of both advantages into a low volume tripod actuator. The Tripod Actuator by Cedrat Technologies (TrAC) is a 3 dof mechanism offering +/-35° rotation around X and Y axis and a 10mm Z translation stroke into a low volume of Ø50x50mm.
The developments of autonomous systems such as for self health monitoring, embedded systems are increasingly used in industrial applications. The energy supply is a key point for the development of such systems. Solutions based on battery have limited life time and the power supplies through wires aren’t always appropriate and easy to install. Furthermore, the battery recycling is complex and an expensive process. The researches on power supply through harvesting systems are increasing in the same way the autonomous systems.
Stepping piezoelectric actuators based on the stick-slip effect inherently make use of a friction contact between stator and rotor. This contact defines not only the actuator’s performance but also is prone to wear and tear. For broad use, the actuator has to be able to perform around 1 million strokes. To assess the actuator’s performance in terms of force, speed, mechanical output, electrical input, and long-term stability under different load- and environmental conditions, as well as different friction partners, a dedicated test-bed for a LSPA30µXS motor by Cedrat Technologies has been set up.
In this paper, a vibration-assisted needle insertion technique has been proposed in order to reduce needle–tissue friction. The LuGre friction model was employed as a basis for the current study and the model was extended and analyzed to include the impact of high-frequency vibration on translational friction. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the role of insertion speed as well as vibration frequency on frictional effects. In the experiments conducted, an 18 GA brachytherapy needle was vibrated and inserted into an ex-vivo soft tissue sample using a pair of amplified piezoelectric actuators. Analysis demonstrates that the translational friction can be reduced by introducing a vibratory low-amplitude motion onto a regular insertion profile, which is usually performed at a constant rate.
A mechanical structure based on serial stacking of level arm has been designed in order to amplify the ingoing force of the the harvester system. The outgoing force is applied upon the smart material. The deformation of the mechanical structure is based on flexural pivots using four truncated circular collars. The last amplification is based on the APA® (Amplified Piezoelectric Actuator) shell and already patented solution by Cedrat Technologies. The force amplification structure has been designed upon the request of a small volume allocated (0.3 cm3) and low frequency resonance (20 Hz) harvester
Stepping Piezo Actuators (SPA) are inertial piezo motors able to reach long stroke with important resolution. Previous work showed that large benefits in terms of speed and input current are taken from use of Amplified Piezo Actuators (APA®). The aim of this paper is to present new rotative configuration, advancements in maximal actuation force into thermal vacuum conditions and improvements using smart control.