Ongoing developments of instruments reveal the need for fast and precise mechanisms . These requirements are all the more significant when large payloads of hundreds grams, such as mirrors, optical plates, corner cubes or antennas are involved in the motion. Indeed, highly dynamic kinematics coupled with large inertia lead to parasitic reaction forces that interfere on the accurate measurement.
In this study, a characterization of hysteresis in a piezoceramic stack actuator similar to those employed in an actively controlled flap (ACF) system is performed to assess the effects of hysteresis on system performance. The effect of unmodeled actuation hysteresis may significantly reduce vibration and noise reduction capabilities. A hysteresis model based on the classical Preisach model has been developed from experimental data.
Within the frame of a project called DTP RPA (Développement Technique Probatoire Rotor à Pale Active), also known as Active Blade Concept, carried out in cooperation between ONERA, Eurocopter, DLR and Eurocopter Deutschland, a four-bladed Mach-scaled rotor was tested in December 2005 in ONERA S1 Modane wind-tunnel. The main objective of this test was to validate the concept of using active flaps located on the trailing edge of the blades of the main rotor of a helicopter to decrease the vibration level generated by this rotor.
ABC is the acronym for ‘’Active Blade Concept’’ and represents a 38% Mach scaled model rotor of the Advanced Technology Rotor (ATR) of Eurocopter Germany (ECD, ). In contrast to the ATR the model rotor is fully articulated. Specifically, it is equipped with a flap at the trailing edge of each blade, which is driven by a piezoelectric actuator. The ABC project is a cooperation between the French ONERA and the German DLR within the research concept ‘’The Active Rotor’’.
Optical instruments such as interferometers and optical delay lines are sensitive to external vibrations and require a strong isolation of vibrations. Some products for active, semi active or passive isolation exist but are rather large which makes them much more suitable for lab applications than to embedded applications as meet in Space, Aircraft or Military applications in general, or in the space ICE CNES experiment. These requirements have driven the development of a new type of Electrically-Tunable Low-Frequency Miniature Suspension.
Actuation is used in all vehicles (aircraft, spacecraft, ground vehicles, etc) to control the position and/or attitude of the vehicle, and also to deploy or retract equipment, particularly for embedded optic instruments (cameras, telescopes). As such, the actuation is a safety critical system, particularly when humans could be catastrophically affected by failures within the system. Applications for actuation are flight controls, landing gear, rotors, suspension, antennae steering, valves, scanning, positioning using hydraulic, electromechanical, magnetic and piezo actuators. In aircraft there is a common goal to reduce the number of hydraulic actuators in vehicles and eventually to replace them completely by electric actuators.
Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is still today a technically difficult procedure. In fact, the mechanical stabilizers used to locally suppress the heart excursion have been demonstrated to exhibit significant residual motion. We therefore propose a novel active stabilizer which is able to compensate for this residual motion. The interaction between the heart and a mechanical stabilizer is first assessed in vivo on an animal model. Then, the principle of active stabilization, based on the high speed vision-based control of a compliant mechanism, is presented. In vivo experimental results are given using a prototype which structure is compatible with a minimally invasive approach.